• Simon Grund
  • Oliver Lüdtke
  • Alexander Robitzsch
The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is frequently used to examine whether a number of groups differ on a variable of interest. The global hypothesis test of the ANOVA can be reformulated as a regression model in which all group differences are simultaneously tested against zero. Multiple imputation offers reliable and effective treatment of missing data; however, recommendations differ with regard to what procedures are suitable for pooling ANOVA results from multiply imputed datasets. In this article, we compared several procedures (known as D1, D2 and D3) using Monte Carlo simulations. Even though previous recommendations have advocated that D2 should be avoided in favor of D1 or D3, our results suggest that all procedures provide a suitable test of the ANOVA’s global null hypothesis in many plausible research scenarios. In more extreme settings, D1 was most reliable, whereas D2 and D3 suffered from different limitations. We provide guidelines on how the different methods can be applied in one- and two-factorial ANOVA designs and information about the conditions under which some procedures may perform better than others. Computer code is supplied for each method to be used in freely available statistical software.
Original languageEnglish
Journal Methodology
Pages (from-to)75-88
Number of pages14
StatePublished - 05.10.2016

    Research areas

  • Educational assessment/measurements - multiple imputation, missing data, pooling, ANOVA

ID: 622754