• Livia Kuklick
  • Marlit Annalena Lindner
Immediate Knowledge of Results (KR) feedback at the task level may motivate test takers by showing that their answers matter. Appealing feedback cues may help to prevent negative emotions in lower performers who receive a higher amount of negative feedback. In this experiment, we varied the presence of KR feedback and the feedback delivery mode in a 1 × 5 between-subjects design (i.e., no feedback vs. text, color, sound, or animation feedback) to investigate effects on learning outcomes and affective-motivational measures. Our sample included 661 fifth and sixth graders who solved two computer-based multiple-choice science tests. First, students worked on an 18-item treatment test (with experimental feedback manipulation). Students repeatedly rated their effort, enjoyment, pride, and boredom during the test, as well as their expectancy of success and attainment value after the test. Subsequently, they worked on a posttest (without feedback) that assessed recall and near-transfer learning. All KR feedback conditions significantly increased recall, but there was no evidence for near-transfer learning. Feedback had a significant, negative effect on attainment value, whereas significant interactions between the feedback conditions and students’ treatment performance revealed that feedback effects on several affective-motivational dimensions (i.e., expectancy of success, enjoyment, pride, and boredom) were performance-dependent. Feedback benefited higher performers’ motivation and affect but showed negative effects on some affective-motivational measures for lower performers. The pattern of results indicated that color/sound/animation feedback may have reduced the effect of performance on emotional feedback perception to some extent. However, none of the feedback conditions improved affective-motivational outcomes independent of students’ performance.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102001
JournalContemporary Educational Psychology
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 10.2021

    Research areas

  • Methodological research and method development - Computer-based feedback, Test-taking motivation, Achievement emotions, Multiple-choice testing, Low-stakes assessment

ID: 1700016