A meta-analysis of 26 primary studies, yielding 76 pair-wise comparisons of dynamic and static visualizations, reveals a medium-sized overall advantage of instructional animations over static pictures. The mean weighted effect size on learning outcome is d = 0.37 (95% CI 0.25–0.49). Moderator analyses indicate even more substantial effect sizes when the animation is representational rather than decorational (d = 0.40, 95% CI 0.26–0.53), when the animation is highly realistic, e.g., video-based (d = 0.76, 95% CI 0.39–1.13), and/or when procedural-motor knowledge is to be acquired (d = 1.06, 95% CI 0.72–1.40). The results are in line with contemporary theories of cognitive load and multimedia learning, and they have practical implications for instructional design.
Translated title of the contributionInstructional animation versus static pictures: A meta-analysis
Original languageEnglish
JournalLearning and Instruction
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)722-738
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 2007
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    Research areas

  • Meta-analysis, Instructional visualization, animation, video, and picture, Declarative, procedural, and problem-solving knowledge

ID: 16462