Private tutoring is considered an effective intervention to improve students' outcomes. Although many studies have examined its relationship with achievement, motivational-affective outcomes have rarely been studied. Based on the self-determination theory and the control-value theory, we evaluated the relationship of private tutoring with motivational-affective outcomes in three subjects. Further, tutors' individual frame of reference and students' internal and external reasons to attend private tutoring were investigated as potential impact factors of private tutoring. Longitudinal data were drawn from the German Competencies and Attitudes of Students study (KESS). Path analyses did not reveal a relationship between private tutoring and students' motivational-affective outcomes. An individual frame of reference and internal reasons had favourable associations with work habits in mathematics, while external reasons showed unfavourable associations with work habits and test anxiety in mathematics. Thus, private tutoring cannot generally be expected to enhance motivational-affective outcomes, although it can be beneficial under specific conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102137
JournalLearning and Individual Differences
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - 05.04.2022

    Research areas

  • Domain-specific learning in kindergarten and school - Private tutoring, Shadow education, Motivation, Achievement emotions, Individual frame of reference

ID: 1837851