One of the primary goals of international large-scale assessments in education is the comparison of country means in student achievement. This article introduces a framework for discussing differential item functioning (DIF) for such mean comparisons. We compare three different linking methods: concurrent scaling based on full invariance, concurrent scaling based on partial invariance using the RMSD statistic, and robust and nonrobust linking approaches based on separate scaling. Furthermore, we analytically derive the bias in the country means of different linking methods in the presence of DIF. In a simulation study, we show that the partial invariance and robust linking approaches provide less biased country means than the full invariance approach in the case of biased items.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)36-68
Publication statusPublished - 02.2022
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    Research areas

  • linking, differential item functioning, RMSD statistic, partial invariance, international large-scale assessments

ID: 1648899