• Karin Guill
  • Katrin Lintorf
Private supplementary tutoring is a widespread and controversial phenomenon. The pressure high-stakes exams put on students is often held responsible for high tutoring rates. Our study tested this hypothesis by using regional variance in Germany: Results from two of three large-scale studies give evidence that, in regions where the transition from primary to secondary school resembles high-stakes exams, the probability to attend private tutoring is higher than in other regions. Therefore, we discuss how a more flexible education system with different pathways to the same educational goal might obviate the need for private tutoring and we consider this system’s side-effects.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Educational Development
Pages (from-to)172-182
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 03.2019

    Research areas

  • Academic aspiration, Education policy, High-stakes tests, Private tutoring, Shadow education

ID: 911590