• Klaus Ruppersberg
  • Sonja Hanebaum
  • Renate Peper-Bienzeisler
If you want to wash greasy debris from your hand or clothes, you need molecules that are both water- and fat-soluble. The easiest way to gain such molecules is to boil vegetable or animal fats with soda or potash. The oldest manual is written in Sumerian cuneiform. Soaps also have disadvantages. Because they are alkaline, they cause felting when washing wool, and with calcareous water, they form insoluble lime soaps. Therefore, research is being carried out on new washing-active substances in order to obtain products with better washing performance, better compatibility, a more favorable production process and tailor-made properties for individual processes. Depending on the hydrophilic content, there are different classes of surfactants. The classic soaps are anionic surfactants. In addition, nonionic, cationic and zwitterionic surfactants are known. A modern color detergent, in addition to washing-active substances (WAS), consists of many other ingredients which, according to EU Regulation 648/2004, must be available to consumers on the website of a detergent manufacturer.
Translated title of the contributionTest your knowledge with challenges fom the ChemistryOlympiad! From classic soap to a modern color detergent
Original languageGerman
JournalChemie Konkret - Forum für Unterricht und Didaktik
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)131-132
Number of pages2
Publication statusPublished - 26.04.2019

ID: 988676